Researchers run models by setting a starting condition. For example, for a model toy car – did it start on a flat surface or on a hill and how hard was it pushed? With a climate model we can set the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and see what effect this has on temperature. We know that temperature increases by a certain amount depending on the amount of greenhouse gases. The equations that represent this relationship are solved... View Article
Yes. Climate models are computer programs which simulate the climate or weather patterns over time. They can be used to estimate the Earth’s climate under different conditions by running simulations. Climate model computer programs use techniques that divide the atmosphere, land, ocean and ice into layered boxes or grid cells to create a 3-dimensional framework. Each grid cell represents a section of the atmosphere, land or ocean. The results of processes modelled in each grid cell influence neighbouring cells. For... View Article
Greenhouse gases trap the heat in the atmosphere. They keep the surface temperature of the Earth warmer, acting as insulation. As the sun warms the Earth, it causes the surface to radiate heat which is absorbed by greenhouse gases. The main greenhouse gases are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxide, chlorofluorocarbons, ozone and water vapour. These gases absorb the infrared radiation causing the temperature to rise. Without greenhouse gases, the average temperature of Earth’s surface would be freezing, about -18C.
Climate models are computer programs which simulate the climate or weather patterns over time. They can be used to estimate the Earth’s climate under different conditions by running simulations. Climate models are powerful tools for simulating, analysing and understanding the Earth’s climate. They are used to understand how our planet is changing and are fundamental to climate science. They help us understand how the climate is affected by emissions, economic growth, technological developments, and political and social change. They can... View Article
Climate change refers to any long-term trend in the climate. Anthropogenic climate change references changes due to human causes.
Climate variability is a transient change in the climate, above or below the long term average. This can occur on different timescales. Natural variability is the main reason for year to year differences in our climate. There are many different processes that interact to influence the climate we experience. Natural variability refers to changes in the climate that occur due to factors other than human influence. These include processes such as large scale climate modes like the El Niño Southern... View Article
The weather is what we experience in a location over a few days. The weather is the state of the atmosphere at a particular time. The climate is what to expect in any month, season, or year. Climate is the long-term description of the average atmospheric conditions over many years.
Heatwaves in the ocean are having major impacts on heatwaves on land.
The oceans’ biology and chemistry influence the climate because ocean, atmospheric and land processes are all interconnected.
Our atmosphere, oceans and lands are constantly interacting with each other.