The Southern Ocean is a primary heat sink that buffers atmospheric warming and has warmed substantially, accounting for an outsized portion of global warming-induced excess heat in the climate system.
Phytoplankton, microscopic marine algae that photosynthesize, facilitate the sequestration of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere into the ocean, thus, contributing to the regulation of global climate.
The El Nino–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has far reaching impacts through atmospheric teleconnections, which make it a prominent driver of global interannual climate variability.
Heatwaves are Australia's deadliest natural hazard. Anthropogenic climate change has increased the intensity, frequency and duration of heatwaves over Australia in the past several decades and these trends are projected to worsen in the future.