The El Niño-Southern Oscillation plays a significant role in modulating rainfall variability in eastern Australia. This project will examine the diversity in ENSO, and other underlying environmental conditions, during years with large versus small rainfall anomalies. This is, you will examine very dry or very wet years in response to El Niño or La Niña, versus those years that are only moderately dry or wet during El Niño and La Niña. The project will look for consistency in underlying environmental conditions, including diversity in ENSO itself, the role of other modes of variability and other regional conditions (e.g. localised sea surface temperatures).

Supervisors: Ailie Gallant ( and Shayne McGregor (

Location: Monash University

Timing: November to early December 2023; late January -February 2024, periodically March-June 2024